Adams was born in 1958 in Danville, Illinois. Luke is the grandson of Golden Age Hollywood actor Paul Birch. In 1977, he graduated from Danville High School where he was a bi-sport athlete and honor student. He later attended the University of Illinois in Champaign, Illinois.
Luke's first voice acting credit is as a sheepdog named Raffles in the 1991 animated film Rover Dangerfield, produced by Hyperion Animation and released by Warner Bros.
Luke has guest starred in several television series throughout the 1990s and early 2000s, such as Angel Street, Guiding Light, NYPD Blue, The Burning Zone, General Hospital, JAG, and The Huntress. From 2002 to 2005, Luke appeared in three episodes of the ABC soap opera All My Children. He has also appeared in hundreds of television commercials featuring products like Burger King and Budweiser.
In 2007, Luke decided to take a break from acting to focus on his family. Moving them from Los Angeles to his hometown of Danville to open a restaurant with his brother. Two years later, Luke returned to acting and moved his family to New York City.
Upon his return to acting, Luke's agent suggested he audition for the role of one of three protagonists of Rockstar Games' newest entry in the popular Grand Theft Auto series. Luke initially didn't like the idea of being in a video game, but after reading the script decided to proceed with the audition.
In 2009, Luke was cast as one of the game's three protagonists, Michael De Santa. The game went on to set several sales records and has become the highest grossing video game in history.